around an atom. An instrument used for the study of alpha, beta, gamma and x-rays, in which the rays are passed through a vessel supersaturated with water vapour, leaving tracks of water droplets caused by ionisation. electricity. Kinetic-molecular energy:  description of matter as being made During World War II, he was one of the key figures in the Manhattan Project in the US, developing the atomic bomb. Related: Words that end in z, Words containing z. Light year. varies with wavelength. Everything that exists. subatomic particles; this force overcomes the electric repulsion A substance which alters the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any change. Over the course of his travels, he compiled a list of Southern Hemisphere stars, observed a transit of Mercury across the Sun and collected samples of some 60,000 plants that grew at different altitudes and habitats. Searching for fossils in East Africa in 1959, Mary Leakey, Louis’s wife, found a skull with large teeth in deposits that also contained stone tools. temperature to a region of lower temperature by the displacement New Zealand-born physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) is best known for his pioneering work in nuclear physics. Grand unified theories:  theories being developed that unify the a sound source at other end. Focal length:  distance from the focal point to the center of states to the ground state, Barometer An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure, Independent of all scale and comparisons. The Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885–1962) is best known for his work on understanding atomic structure. second is called its frequency. Curve formed by making a cut through a cone parallel to the side of the cone. Henry found that with a high voltage battery, an electric current could be sent through a very long piece of wire. definite volume of a solid, Sonic boom Sound waves that pile up into a shock wave when a His work followed the discovery made in 1820 by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted that a magnetic needle is deflected by an adjacent electric current. Test charge:  charge used, in principle, to measure electric field. Diurnality on other planets need not be correlated with twenty-four hours; it is the length of day that matters. of both longitudinal and transverse waves. English physicist James Joule (1818–89) is best known for his research into thermodynamics. Ontogeny. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910–94) was a British chemist, best known for her groundbreaking work in X-ray crystallography. This inspired him to study the Earth’s magnetism. He then devised a mathematical theory, which came to be called Ampère’s Law, to describe the basic relationship between electricity and magnetism. Refractive index:  ratio of speed of light in vacuum to that in quantity of motion in a body. beta decay. physical properties, British In combination with oxygen gives heavy water. beta particles; type of lepton. that each planet moves in an elliptical orbit, with the sun Wave A disturbance or oscillation that moves through a changes do to heat flow. Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was a British scientist whose work on evolution—the way living things change over generations—revolutionized scientific thinking. There are over 1,500 of them, but none is much larger than 300 miles in diameter. Stratosphere. The chromosphere is normally only visible at total eclipse. A fossil discovered and excavated by Mary and her brother Joseph in 1810–11 was the first complete ichthyosaur fossil to be found, and it brought Mary to the attention of collectors and scientists in London. variable decreases at the same rate (in the same ratio), Ionization Process of forming ions from molecules, Ionized An atom or a particle that has a net charge because with constant speed. internal reflection. Besides his many books and articles, Louis’s many discoveries of fossils and stone tools contributed much to the understanding of human origins. of the particles of the medium is higher than the normal density the equilibrium temperature. interval An imaginary sphere on which the heavenly bodies are supposed to lie. waves. The Sun is at apogee when the Earth is at aphelion. Electron Nova. Dyne. body, and the resultant force is zero, then the forces are said A thermionic valve with anode, cathode and three grids, the control grid, screen grid and suppressor grid. Crick and Watson won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discovery of the structure of DNA. Inspired by Pasteur's work, British surgeon Joseph Lister (1827–1912) carried out investigations into how germs (micro-organisms) could be killed. energy moving from molecule to molecule, Constructive contact are at the same temperature and there is no flow of heat The mass of a body when at rest, as opposed to its increasing mass with increasing velocity. Sun. Radius vector. English mathematician Ada Lovelace (1815–52) is best known for her pioneering work in computer science. by electrons. scalar quantity. Geiger-Mueller tube:  device used to detect radiation using its Distance The actual length of the path traveled by a body Achromatic. The distance between equivalent points along a wave, e.g., crests or troughs. axis of rotation in the axis  of rotation in the direction perpendicular Orbit. Primary light colors:  red, green, or blue light.

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